This language is being developed by Gavin King who has denied that the language being developed at Red Hat, is meant to be a “Java killer.” Among King’s gripes are Java’s verbose syntax, its lack of first-class and higher-order functions, and its poor support for meta-programming. In particular, he’s frustrated with the absence of a declarative syntax for structured data definition, which he says leaves Java “joined at the hip to XML.” Ceylon aims to solve all these problems.
Google is understood to have created a programming language called Golang, or Go. This, say some tech analysts, might just end up replacing Java altogether. This language is a general-purpose programming code that works on everything from application development to systems programing. While it is still a work in progress, and the language specification may change, developers can actually start working with it today itself.
This has been popular for a long time with computer scientists and academia. F# (pronounced “F-sharp”), is a Microsoft language that has been designated to be both functional and practical. Given the fact that it is a first-class language on the .Net Common Language Runtime (CLR), it can access all of the same libraries and features as other CLR languages, such as C# and Visual Basic.
Should you develop your applications for Java or .Net? If you code in Fantom, you can take your pick and even switch platforms midstream. That’s because Fantom is designed from the ground up for cross-platform portability. The Fantom project includes not just a compiler that can output bytecode for either the JVM or the .Net CLI, but also a set of APIs that abstract away the Java and .Net APIs, creating an additional portability layer.
This particular language takes its particles and components from languages across the board and is the brainchild of Bram Moolenaar. He was the creator of the Vim text editor. The language is slated to be fast, concise, portable, and easy-to-read. Its syntax is unique and idiosyncratic, yet feature-rich. It uses C-like expressions and operators, but its own keywords, data types, and block structures. It supports memory management, threads, and pipes. Portability is a key concern. Although Zimbu is a compiled language, the Zimbu compiler outputs ANSI C code, allowing binaries to be built only on platforms with a native C compiler.
This is a parallel processing language that works was once a specialised niche of software development. However, with the increase in multicore CPUs and distributed computing, today’s programming languages aren’t keeping pace with the trend. This is why IBM Research is developing X10, a language designed specifically for modern parallel architectures, with the goal of increasing developer productivity “times 10.” X10 handles concurrency using the partitioned global address space (PGAS) programming model. Code and data are separated into units and distributed across one or more “places,” making it easy to scale a program from a single-threaded prototype (a single place) to multiple threads running on one or more multicore processors.
This is a brilliant language to work with in a world characterised by high-performance computing. The languge was designed with supercomputing and clustering in mind, and is part of Cray’s Cascade Program, an ambitious high-performance computing initiative funded in part by the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Project Agency (DARPA). Chapel’s syntax draws from numerous sources. In addition to the usual suspects (C, C++, Java), it borrows concepts from scientific programming languages such as Fortran and Matlab. Its parallel-processing features are influenced by ZPL and High-Performance Fortran, as well as earlier Cray projects.