Google reshaped its search algorithm to deal with the billion of pages and searches made every day, with backlinks in mind. Given that Google handles 2 trillion searches every year, it has to be smart and strict. So in the latest update, Google has laid a lot of weight on backlinks.
There are over 200 factors which determine the google ranking of a webpage (almost all major search engines) and permutation and combination of which is beyond calculation. But the major ones that directly affect the rank are listed and discussed below. Ways to improve google ranking has been most common task done by webmasters.
Ranking on search result is not a rocket science. It's some tweeks here and there and you're good to go. Here's out how.